上海交通大学

上海交通大学

Shanghai Jiao Tong University

中国
亚洲
九校联盟
双一流
985工程
211工程
上海
综合类
公立

基本信息

An imperial edict issued in 1896 by Emperor Guangxu, established Nanyang Public School in Shanghai. The normal school, school of foreign studies, middle school and a high school were established. Sheng Xuanhuai, the person responsible for proposing the idea to the emperor, became the first president and is regarded as the founder of the university. During the 1930s, the university gained a reputation of nurturing top engineers. After the foundation of People's Republic, some faculties were transferred to other universities. A significant amount of its faculty were sent in 1956, by the national government, to Xi'an to help build up Xi'an JiaoTong University in western China. Afterwards, the school was officially renamed Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Since the reform and opening up policy in China, SJTU has taken the lead in management reform of institutions for higher education, regaining its vigor and vitality with an unprecedented momentum of growth. SJTU includes five beautiful campuses, Xuhui, Minhang, Luwan, Qibao, and Fahua, taking up an area of about 3,225,833 m2. A number of disciplines have been advancing towards the top echelon internationally, and a batch of burgeoning branches of learning have taken an important position domestically. Today SJTU has 26 schools (departments), 68 undergraduate programs, 250 masters-degree programs, 203 Ph.D. programs, 28 post -doctorate programs, and 12 state key laboratories and national engineering research centers. SJTU boasts a large number of famous scientists and professors, including 34 academics of the Academy of Sciences and Academy of Engineering, 95 accredited professors and chair professors of the "Cheung Kong Scholars Program" and more than2006 professors and associate professors. Its total enrollment of students amounts to 35929, of which 1564 are international students. There are 16802undergraduates, and 24614 masters and Ph.D. candidates. After more than a century of operation, Jiao Tong University has inherited the old tradition of "high starting points, solid foundation, strict requirements and extensive practice." Students from SJTU have won top prizes in various competitions, including ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest, International Mathematical Contest in Modeling and Electronics Design Contests. Famous alumni include Jiang Zemin, Lu Dingyi, Ding Guangen, Wang Daohan, Qian Xuesen, WuWenjun, Zou Taofen, Mao Yisheng, Cai Er, Huang Yanpei, Shao Lizi, Wang An and many more. More than 200 of the academics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering are alumni of Jiao Tong University.
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创办时间 : 1896年(清光绪二十二年)
校训 : “饮水思源,爱国荣校”
官方网站 : http://www.sjtu.edu.cn
地址 : 上海市闵行区东川路800号(主校区)
学校性质 公立
研究成果 极高 (Very High)
学生教师比例 9
国际学生总数 6,371
学校面积 很大 (XL)
教师总数 4,386

国际学生比例 (6.75%)

本科生国际学生比例 (6.59%)

研究生国际学生比例 (6.87%)

本科生vs研究生

本科生vs研究生(国际学生)

教师总数 (4,386)

Accounting
Aerospace Engineering
Aircraft Design
Algebra
Animal Science
Applied Chemistry
Applied Physics
Applied Statistics
Architecture
Astrophysics
Atomic and Molecular Physics
Automation
Bioinformatics
Biological Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Biotechnology
Biotechnology and Engineering
Building Environment and Equipment Engineering
Chemical Engineering and Technology
Chinese
Chip Design and System
Circuits and Systems
Civil Engineering
Clinical Professional
Clinical Professional
Clinical Professional Five-Year
Combinatorics and Graph Theory
Comparative Politics
Complex Analysis and Its Applications
Computer Science
Computer Science and Technology
Computer Science and Technology
Computer System Architecture
Condensed Matter Physics
Control Science and Engineering
Control Technology and Instrument
Cultural Industries and Management
Design
Dynamical Systems and Biological Mathematics
Economics
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engineering and Automation
Electronic Science and Technology
Electronic Science and Technology
Engineering Mechanics
English
Environmental Engineering
Environmental Science
Film and Tv
Finance
Financial Mathematics
Food Science and Engineering
Geometric Analysis
German
History
Horticultural Science and Engineering
Image Processing and Inverse Problem
Industrial Engineering and Management
Information and Communication Engineering
Information and Control of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Information Engineering
Instrument Science and Technology
International Economy and Trade
International Relations
International Shipping
Japanese Language
Journalism and Communication
Law
Life Sciences
Management Science
Marketing
Materials Science and Engineering
Mathematical Physics
Mathematics
Mathematics
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical Engineering and Automation
Medical Laboratory Professional Four-Year
Microelectronics
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics
Mis
Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
Nonlinear Functional Analysis and Its Applications
Nuclear Science and Systems Engineering
Number Theory and Cryptography
Nursing Professional Four-Year
Nutrition Professional Four-Year
Operational Research and Cybernetics
Operations Management
Optical Engineering
Optical Information Science and Technology
Optics
Ordinary Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems
Organization and Management
Particle Physics and Nuclear Physics
Pde and Applications
Pharmacy
Pharmacy Four-Year
Philosophy
Physics
Physics
Plant Science
Plasma Physics
Port Waterway and Coastal Engineering
Power and Energy Engineering
Preventive Medical Professional Five-Year
Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics
Public Administration
Public Utilities Management Professional (Health Management) Four-Year
Resources and Environment
Scientific and Engineering Computing
Software Engineering
Software Engineering
Stomatology Professional Seven Year (Accelerated Degree)
The History of Science and Philosophy of Science
Theoretical Physics
Accounting
Administration
Aerospace Propulsion Theory and Engineering
Agricultural Economics and Management
Aircraft Design
Aircraft Design
Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology
Animal Genetic Breeding and Reproduction
Animal Nutrition and Feed Science
Applied Computer Technology
Applied Computer Technology
Applied Computer Technology
Applied Psychology
Architectural Design and Theory
Archival Science
Art of Design
Astrophysics
Atomic and Molecular Physics
Basic Theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Biochemical Engineering
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Biomedical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Biophysics
Botany
Botany
Business Management
Carrier Engineering
Cell Biology
Cell Biology
Cell Biology
Chemical Engineering and Technology
Chemistry
Chinese and Foreign Political System
Chinese Herbal Medicine
Chinese Language and Literature
Circuits and Systems
Circuits and Systems
Civil and Commercial Law
Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics
Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics
Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics
Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics
Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics
Clinical Stomatology
Clinical Stomatology
Clinical Stomatology
Clinical Stomatology
Clinical Stomatology
Communication
Communication and Information Systems
Communication and Information Systems
Computer Software and Theory
Computer Software and Theory
Computer System Architecture
Computer System Architecture
Condensed Matter Physics
Constitutional and Administrative Law
Control Theory and Control Engineering
Control Theory and Control Engineering
Criminal Law
Crop Genetics and Breeding
Cryptography
Cryptography
Dermatology and Venereology
Dermatology and Venereology
Dermatology and Venereology
Design and Manufacture of Ships and Marine Structures
Detection Technology and Automation Devices
Developmental Biology
Developmental Biology
Disaster Prevention and Reduction Engineering and Protective Engineering
Ecology
Economic Law
Educational Technology
Electrical Machinery and Apparatus
Electrical Theory and New Technology
Emergency Medicine
Engineering Mechanics
Engineering Mechanics
Engineering Thermal Physics
English Language and Literature
Environment and Natural Resources Protection Law
Environmental Engineering
Environmental Science
Field and Microwave Technology
Finance
Fine Arts
Fluid Machinery and Engineering
Food Science
Foreign Linguistics and Applied Linguistics
General and Fundamental Mechanics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Geotechnical Engineering
Geriatrics
Grassland
Happiness Study
Harbor, Coastal and Offshore Engineering
Heating, Gas Supply, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Engineering
High Voltage and Insulation Technology
Higher Education
History of Science and Technology
Horticulture
Human Anatomy and Embryology
Hydromechanics
Hydromechanics
Imaging and Nuclear Medicine
Imaging and Nuclear Medicine
Imaging and Nuclear Medicine
Imaging and Nuclear Medicine
Imaging and Nuclear Medicine
Imaging and Nuclear Medicine
Imaging and Nuclear Medicine
Immunology
Industrial Economics
Information Science
Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine
International Law
International Political
International Relations
International Trade
Japanese Language and Literature
Journalism
Legal Theory
Linguistics and Applied Linguistics
Management Science and Engineering
Management Science and Engineering
Management Science and Engineering
Manufacturing Engineering of Aerospace
Marine Engineering
Marxist Philosophy
Marxist Theory
Master of Business Administration
Master of Laws
Materials Physics and Chemistry
Materials Processing Engineering
Materials Processing Engineering
Materials Science
Materials Science
Materials Science
Mathematics
Measurement Techniques and Instrumentation
Mechanical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Design and Theory
Mechanical Manufacturing and Automation
Medicinal Chemistry
Medicinal Chemistry
Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy
Microbiology
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics
Navigation, Guidance and Control
Navigation, Guidance and Control
Neurobiology
Neurology
Neurology
Neurology
Neurology
Neurology
Neurology
Nuclear Science and Engineering
Nursing
Nutrition and Food Hygiene
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Occupational and Environmental Health
Oncology
Oncology
Oncology
Oncology
Oncology
Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology
Optical Engineering
Optics
Ornamental Plants and Gardening
Orthopedics Science
Otorhinolaryngology
Otorhinolaryngology
Otorhinolaryngology
Otorhinolaryngology
Otorhinolaryngology
Pathogen Biology
Pathology and Pathophysiology
Pathology and Pathophysiology
Pathology and Pathophysiology
Pathology and Pathophysiology
Pathology and Pathophysiology
Pattern Recognition and Intelligent Systems
Pattern Recognition and Intelligent Systems
Pediatrics
Pediatrics
Pediatrics
Pediatrics
Pediatrics
Pediatrics
Pesticide Science
Pharmaceutical Analysis
Pharmacognosy
Pharmacology
Pharmacology
Pharmacology
Pharmacology
Pharmacology
Pharmacology
Pharmacology
Pharmacy
Philosophy of Science and Technology
Physical Education and Training
Physiology
Plant Pathology
Political Theory
Polymer Chemistry and Physics
Power Electronics and Power Drives
Power Machinery and Engineering
Power System and Automation
Precision Instrument and Machinery
Precision Instrument and Machinery
Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Procedural Law
Psychiatry and Mental Hygiene
Radio and Television Arts
Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering
Rehabilitation Medicine & Physical Therapy
Rehabilitation Medicine & Physical Therapy
Signal and Information Processing
Social Medicine and Health Management
Social Medicine and Health Management
Solid Mechanics
Solid Mechanics
Special History
Stomatology
Structural Engineering
Surgery
Surgery
Surgery
Surgery
Surgery
Surgery
Surgery
Surgery
Surgery
Surgery
Systems Engineering
Systems Theory
Technology Economy and Management
Theoretical Physics
Thermal Power Engineering
Tissue Engineering
Tourism Management
Traditional Chinese Medicine
Traditional Chinese Medicine
Transportation Planning and Management
Underwater Acoustic
Urban Planning and Design
Vehicle Engineering
Western Economics

排名概况

材料科学

Materials Sciences

数学

Mathematics

化学

Chemistry

环境科学

Environmental Sciences

物理

Physics & Astronomy

机械工程

Engineering - Mechanical

电气工程

Engineering - Electrical and Electronic

土木工程

Engineering - Civil and Structural

计算机科学

Computer Science and Information Systems

化学工程

Engineering - Chemical

会计与金融

Accounting and Finance

统计学与运筹学

Statistics and Operational Research

经济学与计量经济学

Economics and Econometrics

传媒

Communication and Media Studies

法学

Law and Legal Studies

建筑学

Architecture & Built Environment

艺术与设计

Art & Design

现代语言

Modern Languages

语言学

Linguistics

英语语言与文学

English Language and Literature

牙医

Dentistry

解剖学与生理学

Anatomy & Physiology

药剂学与药理学

Pharmacy & Pharmacology

生物科学

Biological Sciences

医学

Medicine

农林科学

Agriculture & Forestry

管理学硕士

Masters in Management

金融学硕士

Masters in Finance

计算机科学

Computer Science

工学

Engineering

商学与经济学

Business & Economics

医学与健康学

Clinical & Health

物理科学

Physical Sciences

法学

Law

生命科学

Life Sciences

艺术与人文学

Arts & Humanities

社会科学

Social Sciences

工学

Engineering

计算机科学

Computer Science

材料科学

Materials Science

经济学与商学

Economics and Business

农业科学

Agricultural Sciences

环境与生态学

Environment, Ecology

空间科学

Space Science

药理学与毒理学

Pharmacology and Toxicology

生物与生物化学

Biology and Biochemistry

分子生物学与遗传学

Molecular Biology and Genetics

临床医学

Clinical Medicine

免疫学

Immunology

微生物学

Microbiology

神经科学与行为学

Neuroscience and Behavior

植物与动物科学

Plant and Animal Science

数学

Mathematics

化学

Chemistry

物理学

Physics

地球科学

Geosciences

心理学

Psychiatry, Psychology

社会科学与公共卫生学

Social Sciences and Public Health

船舶与海洋工程

Marine, Ocean Engineering

生物医学工程

Biomedical Engineering

冶金工程

Metallurgical Engineering

机械工程

Mechanical Engineering

通信工程

Telecommunication Engineering

交通运输工程

Transportation Science & Technology

仪器科学

Instruments Science & Technology

计算机科学与工程

Computer Science & Engineering

能源科学与工程

Energy Science & Engineering

材料科学与工程

Materials Science & Engineering

纳米科学与技术

Nanoscience & Nanotechnology

生物工程

Biotechnology

化学工程

Chemical Engineering

电力电子工程

Electrical & Electronic Engineering

控制科学与工程

Automation & Control

航空航天工程

Aerospace Engineering

食品科学与工程

Food Science & Technology

土木工程

Civil Engineering

环境科学与工程

Environmental Science & Engineering

海洋科学

Oceanography

化学

Chemistry

物理学

Physics

数学

Mathematics

地理学

Geography

大气科学

Atmospheric Science

地球科学

Earth Sciences

药学

Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

公共卫生

Public Health

口腔医学

Dentistry & Oral Sciences

医学技术

Medical Technology

临床医学

Clinical Medicine

护理学

Nursing

管理学

Management

金融学

Finance

统计学

Statistics

图书情报科学

Library & Information Science

工商管理

Business Administration

经济学

Economics

法学

Law

政治学

Political Sciences

生物学

Biological Sciences

农学

Agricultural Sciences

基础医学

Human Biological Sciences

机械工程

Engineering - Mechanical

土木工程

Engineering - Civil and Structural

电气工程

Engineering - Electrical and Electronic

计算机科学

Computer Science and Information Systems

化学工程

Engineering - Chemical

材料科学

Materials Sciences

物理

Physics & Astronomy

化学

Chemistry

数学

Mathematics

环境科学

Environmental Sciences

地球与海洋科学

Earth and Marine Sciences

会计与金融

Accounting and Finance

统计学与运筹学

Statistics and Operational Research

传媒

Communication and Media Studies

社会政策与管理

Social Policy & Administration

经济学与计量经济学

Economics and Econometrics

法学

Law and Legal Studies

建筑学

Architecture & Built Environment

现代语言

Modern Languages

语言学

Linguistics

艺术与设计

Art & Design

英语语言与文学

English Language and Literature

解剖学与生理学

Anatomy & Physiology

药剂学与药理学

Pharmacy & Pharmacology

生物科学

Biological Sciences

医学

Medicine

农林科学

Agriculture & Forestry

管理学硕士

Masters in Management

金融学硕士

Masters in Finance

计算机科学

Computer Science

工学

Engineering

法学

Law

商学与经济学

Business & Economics

医学与健康学

Clinical & Health

物理科学

Physical Sciences

生命科学

Life Sciences

艺术与人文学

Arts & Humanities

社会科学

Social Sciences

工学

Engineering

计算机科学

Computer Science

材料科学

Materials Science

经济学与商学

Economics and Business

农业科学

Agricultural Sciences

环境与生态学

Environment, Ecology

空间科学

Space Science

药理学与毒理学

Pharmacology and Toxicology

生物与生物化学

Biology and Biochemistry

临床医学

Clinical Medicine

分子生物学与遗传学

Molecular Biology and Genetics

免疫学

Immunology

微生物学

Microbiology

植物与动物科学

Plant and Animal Science

神经科学与行为学

Neuroscience and Behavior

数学

Mathematics

化学

Chemistry

物理学

Physics

心理学

Psychiatry, Psychology

社会科学与公共卫生学

Social Sciences and Public Health

船舶与海洋工程

Marine, Ocean Engineering

生物医学工程

Biomedical Engineering

冶金工程

Metallurgical Engineering

机械工程

Mechanical Engineering

交通运输工程

Transportation Science & Technology

通信工程

Telecommunication Engineering

仪器科学

Instruments Science & Technology

计算机科学与工程

Computer Science & Engineering

材料科学与工程

Materials Science & Engineering

能源科学与工程

Energy Science & Engineering

化学工程

Chemical Engineering

控制科学与工程

Automation & Control

纳米科学与技术

Nanoscience & Nanotechnology

生物工程

Biotechnology

电力电子工程

Electrical & Electronic Engineering

航空航天工程

Aerospace Engineering

食品科学与工程

Food Science & Technology

土木工程

Civil Engineering

环境科学与工程

Environmental Science & Engineering

管理学

Management

金融学

Finance

统计学

Statistics

工商管理

Business Administration

经济学

Economics

法学

Law

教育学

Education

化学

Chemistry

海洋科学

Oceanography

物理学

Physics

数学

Mathematics

大气科学

Atmospheric Science

地球科学

Earth Sciences

公共卫生

Public Health

药学

Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

口腔医学

Dentistry & Oral Sciences

医学技术

Medical Technology

临床医学

Clinical Medicine

生物学

Biological Sciences

农学

Agricultural Sciences

基础医学

Human Biological Sciences

机械工程

Engineering - Mechanical

土木工程

Engineering - Civil and Structural

电气工程

Engineering - Electrical and Electronic

计算机科学

Computer Science and Information Systems

化学工程

Engineering - Chemical

材料科学

Materials Sciences

数学

Mathematics

化学

Chemistry

物理

Physics & Astronomy

环境科学

Environmental Sciences

地球与海洋科学

Earth and Marine Sciences

会计与金融

Accounting and Finance

统计学与运筹学

Statistics and Operational Research

法学

Law and Legal Studies

社会政策与管理

Social Policy & Administration

经济学与计量经济学

Economics and Econometrics

传媒

Communication and Media Studies

建筑学

Architecture & Built Environment

现代语言

Modern Languages

艺术与设计

Art & Design

语言学

Linguistics

英语语言与文学

English Language and Literature

医学

Medicine

生物科学

Biological Sciences

药剂学与药理学

Pharmacy & Pharmacology

农林科学

Agriculture & Forestry

管理学硕士

Masters in Management

金融学硕士

Masters in Finance

法学

Law

工学

Engineering

计算机科学

Computer Science

商学与经济学

Business & Economics

医学与健康学

Clinical & Health

艺术与人文学

Arts & Humanities

社会科学

Social Sciences

生命科学

Life Sciences

物理科学

Physical Sciences

计算机科学

Computer Science

工学

Engineering

材料科学

Materials Science

经济学与商学

Economics and Business

农业科学

Agricultural Sciences

环境与生态学

Environment, Ecology

药理学与毒理学

Pharmacology and Toxicology

生物与生物化学

Biology and Biochemistry

临床医学

Clinical Medicine

分子生物学与遗传学

Molecular Biology and Genetics

微生物学

Microbiology

神经科学与行为学

Neuroscience and Behavior

免疫学

Immunology

植物与动物科学

Plant and Animal Science

数学

Mathematics

化学

Chemistry

物理学

Physics

社会科学与公共卫生学

Social Sciences and Public Health

心理学

Psychiatry, Psychology

船舶与海洋工程

Marine, Ocean Engineering

生物医学工程

Biomedical Engineering

机械工程

Mechanical Engineering

冶金工程

Metallurgical Engineering

通信工程

Telecommunication Engineering

交通运输工程

Transportation Science & Technology

仪器科学

Instruments Science & Technology

生物工程

Biotechnology

化学工程

Chemical Engineering

材料科学与工程

Materials Science & Engineering

能源科学与工程

Energy Science & Engineering

纳米科学与技术

Nanoscience & Nanotechnology

控制科学与工程

Automation & Control

计算机科学与工程

Computer Science & Engineering

土木工程

Civil Engineering

航空航天工程

Aerospace Engineering

食品科学与工程

Food Science & Technology

电力电子工程

Electrical & Electronic Engineering

环境科学与工程

Environmental Science & Engineering

矿业工程

Mining & Mineral Engineering

药学

Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

公共卫生

Public Health

医学技术

Medical Technology

临床医学

Clinical Medicine

口腔医学

Dentistry & Oral Sciences

管理学

Management

金融学

Finance

统计学

Statistics

工商管理

Business Administration

经济学

Economics

新闻传播学

Communication

心理学

Psychology

化学

Chemistry

物理学

Physics

数学

Mathematics

海洋科学

Oceanography

地球科学

Earth Sciences

大气科学

Atmospheric Science

生物学

Biological Sciences

基础医学

Human Biological Sciences

农学

Agricultural Sciences

机械工程

Engineering - Mechanical

土木工程

Engineering - Civil and Structural

电气工程

Engineering - Electrical and Electronic

计算机科学

Computer Science and Information Systems

化学工程

Engineering - Chemical

材料科学

Materials Sciences

数学

Mathematics

化学

Chemistry

物理

Physics & Astronomy

环境科学

Environmental Sciences

会计与金融

Accounting and Finance

统计学与运筹学

Statistics and Operational Research

传媒

Communication and Media Studies

法学

Law and Legal Studies

社会政策与管理

Social Policy & Administration

经济学与计量经济学

Economics and Econometrics

建筑学

Architecture & Built Environment

现代语言

Modern Languages

艺术与设计

Art & Design

语言学

Linguistics

英语语言与文学

English Language and Literature

医学

Medicine

生物科学

Biological Sciences

药剂学与药理学

Pharmacy & Pharmacology

解剖学与生理学

Anatomy & Physiology

农林科学

Agriculture & Forestry

管理学硕士

Masters in Management

金融学硕士

Masters in Finance

工学

Engineering

计算机科学

Computer Science

商学与经济学

Business & Economics

法学

Law

医学与健康学

Clinical & Health

社会科学

Social Sciences

艺术与人文学

Arts & Humanities

物理科学

Physical Sciences

生命科学

Life Sciences

工学

Engineering

计算机科学

Computer Science

材料科学

Materials Science

经济学与商学

Economics and Business

农业科学

Agricultural Sciences

环境与生态学

Environment, Ecology

药理学与毒理学

Pharmacology and Toxicology

分子生物学与遗传学

Molecular Biology and Genetics

生物与生物化学

Biology and Biochemistry

临床医学

Clinical Medicine

免疫学

Immunology

神经科学与行为学

Neuroscience and Behavior

植物与动物科学

Plant and Animal Science

数学

Mathematics

化学

Chemistry

物理学

Physics

社会科学与公共卫生学

Social Sciences and Public Health